1773年12月16日晚上, 约翰安德鲁斯, 一个年轻的波士顿商人, 在学校街的家里喝完茶后, set out for the waterfront to have an “ocular demonstration” of “what was going forward” at Griffin’s Wharf—the destruction of the East India Company 茶 that we know today as the Boston Tea Party. 两天后, Andrews wrote a “more particular account” of the events he witnessed in a letter to his brother-in-law 威廉 Barrell, 费城的商人.
约翰安德鲁斯 was born in Boston in 1743, a son of John and Hannah Andrews. The younger Andrews began his career as a merchant before the Revolution and later ran a hardware business on Union Street in Boston. In 1771, 他经常和露丝结婚, 有时甚至在官方文件中, 巴雷尔“Ruthy”), 生于1749年. Ruthy and John had four children born during and after the Revolution. 约翰·安德鲁斯和露西哥哥威廉的通信记录, who was born in Boston but worked as a merchant first in Portsmouth, 新汉普郡, 后来在费城, 从1771年一直延续到1776年威廉去世.
约翰·安德鲁斯写给威廉·巴瑞尔的情书, 内战期间在费城被重新发现, provide a detailed account of political and military affairs—and everyday life—in Boston before and during the Revolution. The letters have been cited in published accounts and more recently on websites, but often from an extended “digest” of them published by the Massachusetts Historical Society soon after their discovery.
在他12月18日的信中, 约翰安德鲁斯 gave his brother-in-law (and modern readers) a detailed description of what became known during the 19th century as the Boston Tea Party. He wrote of “the affair” on the evening of 16 December as having been “transacted with the greatest regularity & 调度.” His estimate of the number of people “mustered” for meetings in the Old South Meeting House that day (five or six thousand) seems fantastic but less than Samuel Adams’s estimate of seven thousand. 讽刺的是，安德鲁斯报告说他当时在家 茶 when he heard the tumult as the public meeting dissolved and went to see “what was going forward,” but returned home to “contentedly” finish his repast before proceeding to Griffin’s Wharf to observe the destruction of the “ill-fated” cargos. “之前 九个。 晚上十点整,他写道, “每一个胸部, 从三艘船上, 被打得粉碎，被扔到两边.” Andrews speculated that the “Indian” disguise of the “actors” who destroyed the 茶 was that of members of the local Narraganset tribe, and that their “jargon was unintelligible to all but themselves”—and concealed their plans and preparation.
He also described the rough justice dealt out to an Irish immigrant, 一位康纳上尉问道,” who had attempted to conceal 茶 stolen from the cargo in the “ript” lining of his coat—a memorable scene that, 还有茶党的其他细节, was integrated into the plot line of Esther Forbes’s historical novel, 约翰尼屈里曼.
The 约翰安德鲁斯 letter ends with more domestic and personal news from Boston, what often is missing from descriptions of political and public events. 在波士顿，炎症性发烧“非常盛行”, striking down and killing young and otherwise healthy people, 但在病了三周之后, 安德鲁斯的妻子(比尔·巴瑞尔的妹妹)”亲爱的Ruthy,被认为正在走向复苏.
The complete text of Andrews’s 18 December letter to Barrell was—and remains—difficult to decipher. 书中充满了作者特有的缩略词, 缩写, 在名字和单词上划下划线, perhaps written in haste to get the “particular account” onto two sides of a single sheet of paper and off in the post to Philadelphia. 如果是这样的话, Andrews was not entirely successful in his plan and had time and space to add two postscripts (at right angles to the original text) on the covering sheet where the letter was addressed.
在附录中, 安德鲁斯报告了第四艘茶叶船在科德角的残骸, making the total number of 茶 chests destroyed four hundred, 但也有报道称，禁闭室 威廉, 那艘从未到达的茶船, also had been carrying streetlamps to illuminate Boston (the cargo of both lamps and 茶 later was salvaged). 在利记APP官网手机版商业事务的第二个附录中, Andrews noted news already received from Philadelphia of the peaceful, 但是成功地抵制了茶叶的进口.
约翰安德鲁斯 continued to provide 威廉 Barrell with a description of life in Boston before and during the first year of the Revolution. Both men (and Ruthy Andrews) were interested in 菲丽丝·惠特蕾, 住在波士顿的年轻黑人诗人. John and 威廉 were impatient to see the publication of Wheatley’s poems, 而露西本身就是一位诗人. While not mentioned in the 18 December letter, newly published copies of Wheatley’s 各种主题的诗歌，宗教和道德 部分货物是 达特茅斯这艘船是将东印度茶叶带到波士顿的船只之一.
约翰安德鲁斯 remained in Boston during the siege (1775–1776) to protect his own property and that of other merchants, but he did not leave with the British forces and loyalists when they evacuated the town—just the opposite, 就像他和威廉·巴勒尔的关系一样, on short notice he hosted General George Washington and his entourage (including Martha Washington) for a dinner in April 1776.
革命后, the Andrews family lived in an elegant Winter Street house near Boston Common, 周围都是“公共福利”花园.” 约翰安德鲁斯 was the proprietor of a hardware business and served as a selectman and town officer. 约翰和露西后来搬到了牙买加平原, 罗克斯伯里的一个乡村社区, 波士顿以外. 约翰安德鲁斯 died there in 1822 at the age of eighty; Ruthy lived on at their country home until her death in 1831.
Explore the Boston Tea Party through the eyes of six contemporary Bostonians—Paul Revere, 约瑟夫•沃伦, 菲丽丝·惠特蕾, 霍尔王子, 约翰•罗, and Thomas Hutchinson—at this exhibition on view at the Massachusetts Historical Society, 博伊尔斯顿街1154号.至2024年2月29日. 参观 我们网站的展览页面 了解更多信息.